Genital (cosmetic) surgery includes several procedures:
• Labiaplasty. This involves surgery to the labia minora (inner lips) and less frequently, the labia majora(outer lips). It generally involves reducing the size of the inner lips so they do not protrude below the outer lips. It is also used to correct asymmetry of the lips, where one lip is significantly different in size/length to the other.
• Vaginoplasty – This involves tightening the inside of the vagina and the vaginal opening by removing excess tissue from the vaginal lining. It effectively results in a vagina with a smaller diameter. Vaginoplasty is often promoted as a solution for women who have experienced a loss of vaginal tone due to childbirth. It is also referred to as 'vaginal rejuvenation'.
• Hymenoplasty – This procedure reconstructs the hymen (the thin membrane of skin that partially covers the vaginal entrance in a virgin). The edges of the torn hymen are reconnected so that when sexual intercourse takes place the membrane will tear and bleed.
• Labia majora augmentation – This procedure seeks to plump up the outer lips by injecting them with fatty tissue taken from another part of the woman's body.
• Vulval lipoplasty – This procedure involves the use of liposuction to remove fat deposits from the mons pubis (the pad of fatty tissue covered by pubic hair). This results in the mons pubis being less prominent.
• G-spot augmentation – This procedure involves injecting a substance such as collagen into the G-spot in order to enhance its size and, therefore, theoretically also a woman's sexual pleasure. The effects will last 3-4 months on average after which the procedure needs to be repeated.
• Clitoral hood reduction – This procedure involves reducing the hood of skin which surrounds the clitoris, exposing the glans (or head) of the clitoris that lies underneath. A clitoral hood reduction is aimed at providing more stimulation, therefore, heightening a woman's sexual pleasure. The procedure is also known as hoodectomy.